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The High Realm of Stormark

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Law of Stormark

 

Act of the Althing

 

To all Our Well-Beloved Royals, Nobles, Knights and Thegns, and all Our other Well-Beloved Patricians and Citizens whatsoever to whom these Presents shall come, Greetings:

 

LET IT BE KNOWN that We, Harald Thorstein the Generous Giver of the House of the Descendants of Freyja, Sacred Consort of the Most Gracious and Most Generous Ladies Divine Frigga, Freyja and Idunn, by Conquest, Popular Acclamation and the Indulgence of the said Fulltrui and Sacred Queens, High King of Stormark, Sovereign Lord on all Continents, Perpetual Protector of the People of Stormark, Perpetual Defender of the Viking Nation, Eternal Guardian of the Sacred Islands, Paramount Chieftain of the Ancient Tribes of the Heartland, Most Noble Sovereign of the Lands of Stormark, Supreme Lord of the Lands of the Longships Throne, Sovereign Lord of the High Queen Asa Isles, Sovereign Lord of High Queen Hervör Isle, Sovereign Lord of Vinland, King of Anglethyr, King of Bondegard, King of the Islands of the Ancient Ways, King of Marthunia, King of Merlaide, King of the Mysterious Isles, King of Thydtwinnster, Solver of the Ancient Enigma, Keeper of the Freyja Treasure, Protector of Love and Liberty, Keeper of the Most Sacred Instruments, Chieftain of all Chieftains, Keeper of the Lightning Sword, Keeper of the Silver Chalice, Keeper of the Spear of Destiny, Keeper of the Valtian Legacy, Lord of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of the Imperial Colonies, Hero of the Old Tale, Friggagothi to the Temple of Motherhood, Freyjagothi to the Temple of Love, Idunngothi to the Temple of Youth, Imperial Chieftain of Gularike, Imperial Chieftain of the Mysterious Isles, Prince Imperial of Alexandria, Fils d'Alexandrie, Prince of the Blood, Duke of Gascony and the Ancient Marches, Duke of Normandie, Duke of Østfold, Duke of Port Chloe and the Providence Plantations, Duke of the Vaan Aujoen, Jarl of Gularike, Jarl of Hattfjelldal, Hereditary Jarl of Kjøpsvik, Marquis of Beaulieu, Marquis Thorstein, Count of Poitou, Count of Quercy, Lord of the Two Peninsulas, Lord of the Isle of Snæland, Lord of the Old Sea Fortress, Lord of the Longships Islands and Lord of the Isles, have looked with favour upon the decision of the Althing of that Day of the Ladies Divine Frigga, Freyja and Idunn, Fulltrui and Sacred Queens of Stormark since time immemorial, which is known to Us, Our Well-Beloved Royals, Nobles and Thegns, and all Our other Well-Beloved Citizens whatsoever as the Third Day of the Month Himinbjorg in the Tenth Year of the Second Viking Age in the Second Epoch of Our High Realm that the Law Speaker of the said Althing has most graciously laid before Us:

 

AN ACT TO MAKE FRESH PROVISION CONCERNING THE CIVIL LAW OF THE HIGH REALM.

 

 

FIRST CHAPTER - LAW OF THE INDIVIDUAL

 

Article 1. Legal Age of Majority

Any person subject to Storish Law shall, at the arrival at the age of thirteen years, be relieved of his or her disabilities of minority and shall thereafter have the same legal rights, abilities, privileges, duties, and responsibilities of an adult person, with such exceptions as shall have been specifically legislated as being limited to persons of more mature years.

 

Article 2. Civil Liability

Every person shall have a duty to honour his or her contractual undertakings and to abide by the rules of conduct which lie upon him or her, according to the circumstances, usage or law, so as not to cause injury to another. Where he or she shall be endowed with reason and shall fail in this duty, he or she shall be responsible for any injury he or she causes to another person and shall be liable to reparation for the injury.

 

Article 3. Liberation from Civil Liability

A person may free himself or herself from his or her liability for injury caused to another by proving that the injury results from superior force, unless he or she has undertaken to make reparation for it; provided that a superior force shall be an unforeseeable and irresistible event, including external causes with the same characteristics. Where a person shall come to the assistance of another person or, for an unselfish motive, disposes, free of charge, of property for the benefit of another person, he or she shall be exempt from all liability for injury that may result from it, unless the injury shall be due to his intentional or gross fault.

 

Article 4. Legal Name

1. Every person subject to the law of Stormark shall have a name chosen by him or her or, in the case of a minor, a name chosen by his or her guardian.

2. Each and every Patrician of Stormark shall be required to have a Storish name. A Storish name consists of three parts:

a) the given or first name(s)

B) the surname(s), and

c) the house name

3. The given or first name or names of the Patrician shall follow the culture and norms established in the jarldom of his or her origin or the jarldom of his or her legal residence.

4. The surname shall be in the form of patronymic, matronymic or nickname. It shall follow the culture and norms established in the jarldom of his or her origin or the jarldom of his or her legal residence.

5. The house name shall indicate the house to which the Patrician belongs.

6. The language of each Storish name shall be in a language spoken in the jarldom of origin of the Patrician or in the jarldom of residence of the Patrician, or in a translatable form in the English language.

7. The name of a Patrician, a legal resident of the High Realm or a member of the House of Ettlingar Freyu may only be changed or amended, in ordinary circumstances, on request of the individual him- or herself. For a Patrician or a legal resident of the High Realm, such request shall be addressed to the court of law of first instance in the jarldom of his or her legal residence. In the case of a member of the House of Ettlingar Freyu, whether living within the High Realm or outside of it, such request shall be addressed to the Gulathing in Haraldsborg. In the case that a jarl, not being a member of the House of Ettlingar Freyu, wishes to change his or her name, he or she may do so by jarlish decree. The Lord Warden of the Inland may challenge any request for change of name in any law court throughout the High Realm when said Lord Warden feels that there is sufficient legal reason to do so.

Article 5. Legal Names in Certain Jarldoms

(Repealed by the Names Act of Year 10.)

Article 6. Legal Residence

The legal residence of a person shall be the Jarldom in which he or she is registered as a resident. Every Patrician of Stormark shall be required to choose a Jarldom as his or her residence. A person who has no residence shall be deemed to be residing in the Jarldom where he or she effectively exercises his or rights.

 

Article 7. House of the High Realm

Every Patrician of Stormark shall be required to be a member of a House of the High Realm. A Patrician who has not chosen a House of the High Realm shall be be assigned a House of the High Realm by the Lord Warden of the Inland.

 

Article 8. SIM-IDs

A SIM-ID shall be a lawful secondary forum account of a Patrician of Stormark in good standing with the High Realm created for the purpose of playing, as an actor, in the High Realm's micronational simulation. All SIM-IDs shall belong to the SIM-ID forum group. SIM-IDs shall not be counted as Patricians of Stormark or as members of the Houses of the High Realm for the purpose of any census or other reckoning of population or membership. The creation and use of SIM-IDs shall be regulated by or under the authority of the Chief of the Micronational Simulation.

 

Article 9. Absence and Death

An absentee shall a Patrician of Stormark or legal resident of the High Realm who ceased to appear in the High Realm without advising anyone, and of whom it is unknown whether he or she is still alive. An absentee shall be presumed to be alive for three months following his or her disappearance, unless proof of his or her death is made before then.

 

Article 10. Declaratory Judgment of Death

A declaratory judgment of death may be pronounced by the Law Court of Last Resort on petition by or under the authority of the High King in the High Council of the Realm upon expiration of the delay prescribed by Article 9. A declaratory judgment of death produces the same effects as death: the human being indicated therein shall cease to exist as a person and his or her account shall be added to the will be added to the Dead forum group. A Patrician of Stormark may declare himself or herself dead at any time but shall not be able to return to true life with that particular character.

 

SECOND CHAPTER - LAW OF THE COUPLE

 

Article 1. Power to Join Persons in Matrimony

The Jarls of the High Realm and any cleric of any chartered Religious Body shall have the sole power to join two persons in matrimony in the High Realm provided always that at least one of the individuals to be joined in matrimony shall be a Patrician of Stormark. Both partners shall also have to be at least 13 years old to marry.

 

Article 2. Freedom of Choice

Any couple that wants to marry shall be free to choose the Jarl, Jarla or Cleric by whom they would like to be joined in matrimony, but it shall not lawful for anyone to join him- or herself in matrimony with somebody.

 

Article 3. Register of Marriages

The Lord Warden of the Inland shall keep a register of all marriages concluded within the High Realm. The said register shall be known as the Register of Marriages.

 

Article 4. Marriage Ceremony

The couple and the Jarl, Jarla or cleric shall set a date on which the ceremony shall be held. Each partner shall bring a best (wo)man who also is at least 16 years old. It shall not be required for the best (wo)men to be Patricians of Stormark. A marriage ceremony conducted by a Jarl or Jarla shall be performed in accordance with the practices of his or her Jarldom. The marriage ceremonies conducted by a cleric shall be performed in accordance with the faith and practices of the Religious Body to which the cleric performing the ceremony belongs to.

 

Article 5. Prevention of Bigamy

Before the marriage ceremony shall take place the Jarl or cleric that will perform the marriage ceremony shall check the Register of Marriages to establish whether or not any of the partners to be joined in matrimony is already married to another person. In the event that it is established that any of the partners is already married to somebody else, the marriage ceremony shall be cancelled.

 

Article 6. Prohibition to Marry Certain Females

No person may marry his or her mother, grandmother, daughter, son's daughter, daughter's daughter, stepmother, grandfather's wife, son's wife, son's son's wife, daughter's son's wife, wife's mother, wife's grandmother, wife's daughter, wife's son's daughter, wife's daughter's daughter, sister, brother's daughter, sister's daughter, father's sister, or mother's sister.

 

Article 7. Prohibition to Marry Certain Males

No person may marry his or her father, grandfather, son, son's son, daughter's son, stepfather, grandmother's husband, daughter's husband, son's daughter's husband, daughter's daughter's husband, husband's father, husband's grandfather, husband's son, husband's son's son, husband's daughter's son, brother, brother's son, sister's son, father's brother, or mother's brother.

 

Article 8. Termination of Marriage

A marriage shall be terminated upon the death of a spouse, annulment of marriage, or divorce. Either party to a marriage concluded within the High Realm may petition the Law Courts of Stormark for divorce on the ground that the marriage has irretrievably broken down. The Law Court receiving such petition shall make a decree for the dissolution of the marriage.

 

THIRD CHAPTER - LAW OF INHERITANCE

 

Article 1. Wills.

Any person subject to Storish Law who has attained the age of 13 years may devise, bequeath or dispose of by his or her Will all real estate and all personal estate which he or she shall be entitled to at the time of his or her death. A will shall only be valid if the person making the disposition preparing was of such sound mind as to be capable of making the disposition in a reasonable manner. A will shall be executed in writing, and testator shall sign it or acknowledge his signature before a notary public or two witnesses. When a testator wishes to alter individual provisions of his will, or add to its provisions, the same rules shall be observed as apply to the preparation of wills. A will may be invalidated by testator if he states unequivocally that it is revoked. In case of a joint or mutual will revocation can only become effective if it is brought to the attention of the other party, unless this is prevented by extraordinary circumstances.

 

Article 2. Where There Is No Will.

In the event that a deceased person subject to Storish Law leaves no Will his or her estate shall be inherited by his or her heirs at law who are subject to Storish Law.

 

Article 3. Heirs at Law.

The following shall be heirs at law:

  • The children and other descendants of a deceased person;
  • The parents of a deceased person and their descendants;
  • The spouse of a deceased person.

Article 3. The First Succession

The spouse of a deceased person shall inherit one third of the estate left by the deceased if the deceased is survived by children, and the children shall inherit two thirds equally. If a deceased person leaves no spouse his or her children and other descendants shall inherit the entire estate. In case a child of a deceased person has died before that person's death, the children of the deceased child shall inherit the part to which that child would have been entitled. More distant relatives shall succeed the deceased in the same manner.

 

Article 4. The Second Succession

If a deceased person does not leave any surviving descendants, his or her spouse shall inherit the entire estate. In the event that a deceased person leaves no spouse his or her parents shall inherit the entire estate equally. If one parent did not survive the deceased, the part to which that parent would have been entitled shall be inherited by the children or other descendants of that parent in the manner provided for in Article 3. If the deceased parent did not leave any descendants the part to which that parent would have been entitled shall be inherited by the other parent. In the event that a deceased person does not leave surviving parents, the part to which each parent would have been entitled shall be inherited by the children or other descendants of that parent. If one of the deceased parents did not leave any surviving descendants, the descendants of the other parent shall inherit the entire estate.

 

Article 5. Deferred Estate Settlement

After the death of a spouse the other spouse shall have the right of beneficial enjoyment of the joint estate with the common descendants of both spouses, if the deceased spouse has not provided by will that distribution is to take place. A spouse having beneficial enjoyment of a joint estate can at any time request that distribution take place. In the event a spouse having beneficial enjoyment of a joint estate marries again, his or her right of beneficial enjoyment shall be cancelled.

 

Article 6. Reversion of Property to the State

In the event that a person leaves no heir at law subject to Storish Law, his or her property shall revert to the Treasury of the High Realm.

 

FOURTH CHAPTER - LAW OF THE HOUSES OF THE HIGH REALM

 

(Repealed by the Styles and Titles Act of Year 10.)

 

FIFTH CHAPTER - LAW OF ORGANIZATIONS

 

Article 1. Legal Persons

Legal persons shall be organizations endowed with juridical personality. They may therefore sue and be sued, enter into contracts, incur debt, and have ownership over property. Legal persons shall act through the organs established by their constituting acts and shall be distinct from their members. Their acts shall bind none but themselves, except as provided by law. A legal person shall be represented by a natural person appointed in accordance with its constituting act and its functioning and activities shall likewise be regulated by its constituting act. The legal residence of a legal person shall be at the place and address of its head office. A legal person may change its name or its legal residence by decree of the Court of Last Resort.

 

Article 2. Establishment of Legal Persons

Legal persons shall be established in the public interest or for a private interest and constituted in accordance with the juridical forms provided elsewhere in this Article, or directly by a Statute, or an Imperial Instrument, or a Jarldom Law, or a Jarlial Instrument. A legal person shall be incorporated by decree of a Court of First Instance upon petition of one or more persons, if the Law Court is satisfied that there is an agreement of all the persons involved upon Articles of Incorporation and that there is a constituting act of a corporation, approved by the majority of all the persons involved provided always that a religious body may only be established by a Warrant of Establishment issued by a Jarl of the High Realm.

 

Article 3. Dissolution of Legal Persons

A legal person shall be dissolved by the annulment of its constituting act or for any other cause provided for by the constituting act or by Statute. It shall also be dissolved where the Law Court confirms the fulfilment of the condition attached to the constituting act, the accomplishment of the object for which the legal person was constituted, or the impossibility of accomplishing that object, or the existence of some other legitimate cause. A legal person constituted in accordance with the juridical forms provided by the latter part of Article 2, except for religious bodies, may also be dissolved by consent of not less than two-thirds of the votes given at a general meeting convened expressly for that purpose.

 

Article 4. Powers of Law Court

In the event of fraud with regard to the legal person, the Law Court may, upon petition of an interested person, hold the founders or members of the legal person who have participated in the alleged act or derived personal profit therefrom liable, to the extent it indicates, for any damage suffered by the legal person. In no case may a legal person set up juridical personality against a person in good faith if it is set up to dissemble fraud, abuse of right or contravention of a rule of public order. The Law Court may, in deciding an action by a third person in good faith, rule that a person or group not having status as a legal person has the same obligations as a legal person if the person or group acted as such in respect of the third person.

 

Article 5. Acts before Constitution of Legal Person

A legal person may ratify an act performed for it before it was constituted; it is then substituted for the person who acted for it. A person who acts for a legal person before it is constituted is bound by the obligations so contracted, unless the contract stipulates otherwise and includes a statement to the effect that the legal person might not be constituted or might not assume the obligations subscribed in the contract.

 

Article 6. Recognized Legal Persons

The following not-for-profit organizations shall be recognized as legal persons: the charitable foundation, the private foundation, the trust, the recognized religious body, the mutual benefit corporation and the voluntary association. For-profit organizations which shall be recognized as legal persons shall be the publicly traded corporation and the closely held corporation. Other institutions or bodies corporate in cases prescribed by a Statute, or an Imperial Instrument, or a Jarldom Law, or a Jarlial Instrument.

 

SIXTH CHAPTER - LAW OF OBLIGATIONS

 

Article 1. General

It shall be of the essence of an obligation that there be persons between whom it exists, a prestation which shall form its object, and, in the case of an obligation arising out of a juridical act, a cause which justifies its existence. An obligation shall arise from a contract or from any act or fact to which the effects of an obligation are attached by law.

 

Article 2. Object of Oligations

The object of an obligation shall be the prestation that the debtor shall be bound to render to the creditor and which shall consist of doing or not doing something, provided always that the debtor shall be bound to render a prestation that is possible and determinate or determinable and that is neither forbidden by Statute nor contrary to public order.

 

Article 3. Performance of Obligations

Payment shall not only mean the turning over of a sum of money in satisfaction of an obligation, but also the actual performance of whatever forms the object of the obligation. Every payment shall presuppose an obligation; what has been paid where there is no obligation may be recovered provided always that recovery shall not be admitted, however, in the case of natural obligations that have been voluntarily paid.

 

Article 4. Payments

Payment may be made by any person, even if he or she is a third person with respect to the obligation; the creditor may be put in default by the offer of a third person to perform the obligation in the name of the debtor, provided the offer shall be made for the benefit of the debtor and not merely to change creditors and provided that a creditor may not be compelled to take payment from a third person, however, if he or she has an interest in having the obligation performed by the debtor personally. Payment shall be made to the creditor or to the person authorized to receive it for him or her provided always that payment made to a third person shall be valid if the creditor ratifies such payment; if it is not ratified, the payment shall be valid only to the extent that it benefits the creditor.

 

Article 5. Payments Made in Error

A person who receives a payment made in error, or merely to avoid injury to the person making it while protesting that he or she owes nothing, shall be obliged to restore it; provided that he or she shall not be obliged to restore it, however, where, in consequence of the payment, the claim of the person who received the undue payment in good faith is prescribed or the person has destroyed his title or relinquished a security, saving the remedy of the person having made the payment against the true debtor.

 

Article 6. Enrichment

A person who is enriched at the expense of another shall, to the extent of his or her enrichment, indemnify the other for his or her correlative impoverishment, if there is no justification for the enrichment or the impoverishment. Enrichment or impoverishment shall be justified where it results from the performance of an obligation, from the failure of the person impoverished to exercise a right of which he or she may avail himself or herself or could have availed himself or herselfagainst the person enriched, or from an act performed by the person impoverished for his or her personal and exclusive interest or at his or her own risk and peril, or with a constant liberal intention.

 

SEVENTH CHAPTER - LAW OF CONTRACTS

 

Article 1. Contracts

A contract shall be an agreement between two or more parties for performing, or refraining from performing, some specified act or acts in exchange for lawful consideration. A contract creates obligations and, in certain cases, modifies or extinguishes them. A contract validly formed shall bind the parties who have entered into it not only as to what they have expressed in it but also as to what shall be incident to it according to its nature and in conformity with usage or law. A contract may not be resolved, resiliated, modified or revoked except on grounds recognized by law or by agreement of the parties. A contract shall have has effect only between the contracting parties; it shall not affect third persons, except where provided by law. A minor shall heve no capacity to contract.

 

Article 2. Conclusion of Contracts

A contract shall be concluded before a Law Court by a mutual solemn declaration of those who have capacity to contract which must contain a clear expression of their congruent wills.

 

Article 3. Causes of Contracts

The cause of a contract shall be the reason that determines each of the parties to enter into the contract; provided that the cause need not be expressed. A contract whose cause is prohibited by law or contrary to public order shall be absolutely null.

 

Article 4. Objects of Contracts

The object of a contract shall be the juridical operation envisaged by the parties at the time of its formation, as shall emerge from all the rights and obligations created by the contract. A contract whose object is prohibited by law or contrary to public order shall be absolutely null.

 

Article 5. Absolute Nullity of Contracts

A contract shall be absolutely null where the condition of formation sanctioned by its nullity is necessary for the protection of the general interest. The absolute nullity of a contract may be invoked by any person having a present and actual interest in doing so. It may be invoked by a competent Law Court on its own motion. A contract that is absolutely null may not be confirmed.

 

Article 6. Relatively Nullity of Contracts

A contract is relatively null where the condition of formation sanctioned by its nullity is necessary for the protection of an individual interest, such as where the consent of the parties or of one of them is vitiated. The relative nullity of a contract may be invoked only by the person in whose interest it is established or by the other contracting party, provided he or she is acting in good faith and sustains serious injury therefrom; it may not be invoked by a Law Court on its own motion; provided that a contract that is relatively null may be confirmed. Unless the nature of the nullity is clearly indicated in this Chapter, a contract which does not meet the necessary conditions of its formation shall be presumed to be relatively null.

 

Article 7. Effects of Nullity

A contract that is null shall be deemed never to have existed; provided that in such a case, each party shall be bound to restore to the other the prestations he or she has received. A clause in a contract which is null shall not not render the whole contract invalid in other respects, unless it is apparent that the contract may be considered only as an indivisible whole; provided that the same shall apply to a clause without effect or deemed unwritten.

 

Article 8. Confirmation of Contracts

The confirmation of a contract shall result from the express or tacit will to renounce the invocation of its nullity; provided that it shall result only if the will to confirm is certain and evident. Where the nullity of a contract may be invoked by each of the parties or by several of them against a common opposite party to the contract, confirmation by one of them shall not prevent the others from invoking nullity.

 

Article 9. Formation of Contracts

A contract shall be formed by the sole exchange of consents between persons having capacity to contract, unless, in addition, the law shall require a particular form to be respected as a necessary condition of its formation, or unless the parties require the contract to take the form of a solemn agreement; provided that it shall be also of the essence of a contract that it shall have a cause and an object. Any contract which shall not meet the necessary conditions of its formation may be annulled. The exchange of consents shall be accomplished by the express or tacit manifestation of the will of a person to accept an offer to contract made to him by another person.

 

Article 10. Offer to Contract

An offer to contract shall be a proposal which shall contain all the essential elements of the proposed contract and in which the offeror shall signify his or her willingness to be bound if it is accepted. Such offer to contract shall derive from the person who initiates the contract or the person who determines its content or even, in certain cases, the person who presents the last essential element of the proposed contract. An offer to contract may be made to a determinate or an indeterminate person, and a term for acceptance may or may not be attached to it.

 

Article 11. Term for Acceptance

Where a term for acceptance is attached to an offer to contract, the offer may not be revoked before the term expires; if none is attached, the offer may be revoked at any time before acceptance is received by the offeror. An offer shall lapse if no acceptance is received by the offeror before the expiry of the specified term or, where no term is specified, before the expiry of a reasonable time; it also lapses in respect of the offeree if he has rejected it. In the event that the offeree receives a revocation before the offer expires, the offer shall lapse, even though a term is attached to it. Acceptance which does not correspond substantially to the offer or which is received by the offeror after the offer has lapsed shall not constitute acceptance. It may, however, constitute a new offer. Silence shall not imply acceptance of an offer.

 

Article 12. Consent

Consent may be given only by a person who, at the time of manifesting such consent, either expressly or tacitly, is capable of binding himself. Consent may be given only in a free and enlightened manner; provided that it may be vitiated by error or fear. Consent to a contract the object of which is to deliver the person making it from fear of serious injury is not vitiated where the other contracting party, although aware of the state of necessity, is acting in good faith.

 

Article 13. Effects of Error

Error shall vitiate consent of the parties or of one of them where it relates to the nature of the contract, the object of the prestation or anything that was essential in determining that consent. Error on the part of one party induced by fraud committed by the other party or with his or her knowledge shall vitiate consent whenever, but for that error, the party would not have contracted, or would have contracted on different terms.

 

Article 14. Effects of Fear

Fear of serious injury to the person or property of one of the parties shall vitiate consent given by that party where the fear is induced by violence or threats exerted or made by or known to the other party; provided that apprehended injury may also relate to another person or his or her property and is appraised according to the circumstances. Fear induced by the abusive exercise of a right or power or by the threat of such exercise shall vitiate consent.

 

Article 15. Interpretation of Contracts

The common intention of the parties rather than adherence to the literal meaning of the words shall be sought in interpreting a contract. In interpreting a contract, the nature of the contract, the circumstances in which it was formed, the interpretation which has already been given to it by the parties or which it may have received, and usage, shall all be taken into account. Each clause of a contract shall be interpreted in light of the others so that each shall be given the meaning derived from the contract as a whole. A clause shall be given a meaning that shall give it some effect rather than one that shall give it no effect. Words susceptible of two meanings shall be given the meaning that best conforms to the subject matter of the contract. A clause intended to eliminate doubt as to the application of the contract to a specific situation shall not restrict the scope of a contract otherwise expressed in general terms. The clauses of a contract shall cover only what it appears that the parties intended to include, however general the terms used. In case of doubt, a contract shall be interpreted in favour of the person who contracted the obligation and against the person who stipulated it. In all cases, it shall be interpreted in favour of the adhering party.

 

EIGHTH CHAPTER - LAW OF PROPERTY

 

Article 1. Property Rights

The right to own or use real property in the High Realm, including fishing and hunting rights, water rights or other real property rights, shall be governed by the laws and customs of the Jarldoms of the High Realm.

 

Article 2. Natural Resources

All natural resources, including the air and all forms of potential energy, within the jurisdiction of the High Realm and all royalties and franchises within that jurisdiction shall belong to the Jarldoms of the High Realm subject to all estates and interests therein for the time being lawfully vested in any person or body.

 

Article 3. Land, Mines, Minerals and Waters

All land and all mines, minerals and waters which were owned by the High Realm in its capacity of proprietary owner immediately before the coming into operation of this Article not in use by the High Realm immediately before the coming into operation of this Article shall belong to the Jarldoms of the High Realm to the same extent as they then belonged to High Realm. Provision may be made by Jarldom law for the management of the property which belongs to the Jarldoms of the High Realm by virtue of this Article and for the control of the alienation, whether temporary or permanent, of that property.

 

Article 4. Expropriation

Any subdivision's property as well as any private property, real or personal, that, in the opinion of the High King or High Queen in the High Council of the Realm, is required by the High Realm for public work or other public purpose may, against full compensation in gold or silver determined by a Law Court-appointed expert, be expropriated by Order of the High King or High Queen in the High Council of the Realm in the event that attempts of the High Realm to purchase the property have failed due to rejection by the owner of the property of the offers made by the High Realm.

 

NINETH CHAPTER - LAW OF THE ECONOMY

 

Article 1. The Small Commonwealth Unified Currency Treaty

The Small Commonwealth Unified Currency Treaty as amended shall remain in operation in the High Realm.

 

Article 2. The króna

The króna shall remain the currency of the High Realm. The plural form of the króna is krónur. Króna or krónur may be abbreviated "kr".

 

Article 3. Central Banking Authority of the High Realm

The High King shall remain the Central Banking Authority of the High Realm and shall have all the powers inherent to a Central Banking Authority.

 

Article 4. The Silver and Gold Economy

Silver and gold shall be fungible assets within the High Realm, with their value determined by the Central Banking Authority. The sale, ownership and transfer of silver and gold, and other related economic activities, shall be regulated by the Central Banking Authority.

 

Article 5. Declarations of Natural Resources

Aside from the inherent power of the Chief of the Micronational Simulation, within the whole of the High Realm, and Jarls of the High Realm, within their respective Jarldoms, to do so, declarations of natural resources may be made, within the whole of the High Realm, by or under the authority of the High King in the High Council of the Realm should He deem it necessary or expedient in the interest of national development.

 

Article 6. Declarations of Infrastructure and Constructions

Aside from the inherent power of the Chief of the Micronational Simulation, within the whole of the High Realm, and Jarls of the High Realm, within their respective Jarldoms, to do so, declarations of infrastructure and constructions may, within the whole of the High Realm, be made by or under the authority of the High King in the High Council of the Realm should He deem it necessary or expedient in the interest of national development or security.

 

Article 7. Transportation

All modes of transportation operated over land, water or air within the borders of the High Realm by any entity or person may be regulated by or under the authority of the High King in the High Council of the Realm should He deem it necessary or expedient in the interest of national development or security.

 

TENTH CHAPTER - FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Article 1. Short Title

 

This Act may be cited as the Law of Daily Life.

 

Article 2. Commencement

 

This Act shall come into operation immediately after it has received the Imperial Assent.

 

In consequence whereof We have assented to and confirmed, as We hereby do assent to and do confirm the same as Law under Our Hand and the Great Seal of Our High Realm.

 

 

So be it!!

 

Given at the Vanadísarhall in the Imperial City of Haraldsborg, in Our Jarldom of Gularike, on this Day of the Ladies Divine Frigga, Freyja and Idunn, Fulltrui and Sacred Queens of Stormark since time immemorial, the Third Day of the Month Himinbjorg in the Tenth Year of the Second Viking Age in the Second Epoch of Our High Realm.

 

 

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Haraldr af Ettlingar Freyu, Stormarks Hár Konungur

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