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Gudhsten Patreksson

Leadership 101

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The word leadership can refer to:


-the process of leading

-the concept of leading

-those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.

-The various meanings can lead to some confusion.


Recently, well-known leadership researchers have summarized the behaviors and approaches of outstanding leaders that they obtained from the more modern theories and research findings. These leadership behaviors and approaches are not specific styles, but cumulatively they probably represent what is currently known about the most effective style of today’s leaders/managers. These leadership styles as follows:


1. Vision. Outstanding leaders articulate an ideological vision that is congruent with the deeply help values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have a moral right.


2. Passion and self sacrifice. Leaders display a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, the moral correctness of their vision. They engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and mission.


3. Confidence, determination, and persistence. Outstanding leaders display a high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they articulate. Theoretically, such leaders need to have a very high degree of self- confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status quo and, therefore, is likely to offend those who have a stake in preserving the established order.


4. Image building. Outstanding leaders are self-conscious about their own image. They recognize that that they must be perceived by followers as competent, credible, and trustworthy.


5. Role modeling. Leader image building sets the stage for effective role modeling because followers identify with the values of role models who are perceived positively.


6. External representation. Outstanding leaders act as the spokesperson for their organization and symbolically represent the organization to external constituencies.


7. Expectations of and confidence in followers. Outstanding leaders communicate high performance expectations of their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations.


8. Selective motive arousal. Outstanding leaders selectively arouse those motives of followers that are of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission.


9. Frame alignment. To persuade followers to accept and implement change, outstanding leaders engage in frame alignment. This refers to the linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementary.


10. Inspirational communication. Outstanding leaders often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories, slogans, symbols, and ceremonies.


Even though, these ten leadership behaviors and approaches are not really specific styles, there is accumulating evidence that a leader’s style can make a difference. It is the key to the formulation and implementation of strategy and plays an important role in work group members’ activity and team citizenship. There is little doubt that the way (style) leaders influence work group members can make a difference in their own and their people’s performance.


(Adopted from: Robert House and Philip M. Podsakoff, "Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Directions for Research," in Jerald Greenberg (ed.), Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ., 1994, pp


Titles emphasizing authority

At certain stages in their development, the hierarchies of social ranks implied different degrees or ranks of leadership in society. Thus a knight led fewer men in general than did a duke; a baronet might in theory control less land than an earl. See peerage for a systematisation of this hierarchy, and order of precedence for links to various systems.


In the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, several political operators took non-traditional paths to become dominant in their societies. They or their systems often expressed a belief in strong individual leadership, but existing titles and labels ("King", "Emperor", "President" and so on) often seemed inappropriate, insufficient or downright inaccurate in some circumstances. The formal or informal titles or descriptions they or their flunkeys employed express and foster a general veneration for leadership of the inspired and autocratic variety. The definite article when used as part of the title (in languages which use definite articles) emphasises the existence of a sole "true" leader. Cases include:


Caudillos in Spanish-speaking countries, notably Spain's Francisco Franco, Chile's Augusto Pinochet or the Dominican Republic's Rafael Trujillo

Conducãtor in Romania - Nicolae Ceauºescu

Il Duce in Italy - Benito Mussolini

Der Führer in Germany - Adolf Hitler

The Dear Leader in North Korea - Kim Jong-il

The Great Helmsman in China - Mao Zedong

The Great Leader in North Korea - Kim Il-sung

Vozd in Serbia - Karadjordje

Poglavnik in Croatia - Ante Paveliæ

Vozhd in the Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin

The different etymologies of these titles suggest various images of leadership: that of a "driver" (Führer, Vozhd), of a "head" (Caudillo, Poglavnik), or of someone followed (Duce, Conducãtor).


Such titles, and even the personal names associated with them, may also appear with reference -- often jocular -- to heirs and would-be imitators. Thus people may continue to speak of little Hitlers in a workplace or refer to a non-collegial prime minister ironically as The Great Helmsman. Compare the way in which the personal family name Caesar and the adopted by-name Augustus became effectively titles or designations for successive heads of the Roman Empire.


The whole structure of military hierarchies and the idea and the titles of an officer corps tend to re-inforce the importance attached to leadership and to the chain of command in the military. Thus (for example) other ranks defer to Lieutenants who defer to Majors who defer to Colonels who defer to Generals who defer to Marshals. Similar elaborate structures of hierarchical leadership titles can occur in Christian churches (Deacon - Priest - Bishop - Archbishop - Cardinal) or in commercial enterprises (team leader - supervisor - line manager/middle manager - staff manager/senior manager - vice president etc).


Informal, often spontaneously-generated titles or descriptions can provide informative insights. The use of "boss" in work-places and crime-syndicates may suggest a relatively loose hierarchy, while dubbing someone "chief" can express either instantaneous readiness to follow of an acknowledgement of collegiality.


Some titles can outstay their use. "Divine Augustus" fell prey to religious changes in the later Roman Empire. "Master" (or "Massa") has fallen out of general use in the American South, and "Baas" has new connotations in the new South Africa since the late 20th century.


Other honorifics can also change in accordance with social circumstances. Britons whose remote ancestors paid due deference to the local "lord" will now find that title more concentrated in the areas of politics and the law. Their American cousins have virtually confined the word "lord" to religious usage.



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Good Evening To You, My Gentle Friends,


Oh My!!! . . .


What an Amazing System of Leadership Hierarchy!!! . . .


That is a Magnificent Explanation of The Correct Usage!!! . . .


This will Most Assuredly stand us all in good stead!!! . . .


Have A Most Splendiferous Evening . . . Forthwith . . .

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